Ayn Rand

Who
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Ayn Rand
is Ayn Rand?


Ayn Rand was formerly known as “Алиса Зиновьевна Розенбаум” (Russian), a Russian-American philosopher, novelist playwright, and screenwriter. She was born on February 2nd, 1905 and died in March 6th, she is known for her two best-selling novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged.





Early life

Ayn Rand was born in a Jewish family living in St. Petersburg on February 2, 1905. There were six members in her family, she was the eldest of the three daughters of Zinovy Zakharovich Rosenbaum and Anna Borisovna Rosenbaum. Ayn Rand's father was a successful pharmacist, eventually owning his own pharmacy and the building in which it was located. At the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Rand was twelve years old. Rand's family life was disrupted by the rise of the Bolshevik party under Vladimir Lenin. Her father's pharmacy was confiscated by the Bolsheviks, and the family fled to the Crimea, which was initially under the control of the White Army during the Russian Civil War. She later recalled that while in high school she determined that she was an atheist. After graduating from high school in the Crimea, she was 16 years old, Rand returned with her family to Petrograd (the new name for St. Petersburg).

After the Russian Revolution, universities were opened to women, including Jews, Rand allowed being in the first group of women to enroll at Petrograd State University, where she studied in the department of social pedagogy, majoring in history. By this time she had decided her professional surname for writing would be Rand, she adopted the first name Ayn, either from a Finnish name or from the Hebrew word עין (means "eye").


Early fiction


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the novel "We the Living"

Rand's first novel which is called the semi-autobiographical “We the Living” was published in 1936. It focused on the struggle between the individual and the state and set in Soviet Russia,. In the beginning of the novel, Rand stated that “We the Living "was as near to an autobiography as she had ever write. It is not only an autobiography in the literal, but also in the intellectual sense. The background made the novel sell slow and the American publisher let it go out of print, although European editions continued to sell. After the success of her later novels, Rand was able to release a revised version in 1959 that has since sold over three million copies.



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the novel "Anthem"

Her novel Anthem was written during a break from the writing of her next major novel, “The Fountainhead”. Anthem tells how the main role "Equality" become a real individual. Ayn Rand shows the importance of being different from others in this novel. It was published in England in 1938, and published in America in 1946, which has sold more than 3.5 million copies.



Later years


Go through the 1960s and 1970s, Rand developed and promoted her Objectivist philosophy in her nonfiction works and by giving talks to students at institutions such as Yale University, Princeton University, Columbia University, Harvard University and MIT. She received an honorary doctorate from Lewis & Clark College in 1963. She also began delivering annual lectures at the Ford Hall Forum, responding afterward in her famously spirited form to questions from the audience. Ayn Rand underwent surgery for lung cancer in 1974. Rand died on March 6, 1982, at her home in New York City, and was interred in the Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York.





Philosophy


1. Metaphysics Objective Reality

Reality exists only because of what it is, we know everything that exists, and things we do not know is not exist.

Example in Anthem:

Equality discovers electricity in the abandoned tunnel from the unmentionable time. Although it is not accepted by the council of scholar, it is still exists as the fact.

2. Epistemology Reason

Reason is the basis for getting knowledge and the standard of measurement.

Example in Anthem:

Equality found that the dead frog moved while electricity was sent to the copper through the brine of the frog’s body.

3. Ethics Self-interest

Man is an end in himself, not means to the ends of others. It indicates that every person exists as an individual, without being run by the others.

Example in Anthem:

Equality is signed to be a street sweeper, but he still insists in doing experiments and studying by himself.

4. Politics capitalism

It is a system where men deal with one another, not as victims and executioners, but as traders, free, voluntary exchange to reciprocal benefit.

Example in Anthem:

People cannot control the things what they do in the society.


All of Her Works:


Novel

1936 We the Living

1943 The Fountainhead

1957 Atlas Shrugged

1934 Night of January 16th

1938 Anthem

Non-fiction

1961 For the New Intellectual

1964 The Virtue of Selfishness

1966 Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal

1969 The Romantic Manifesto

1971 The New Left: The Anti-Industrial Revolution

1979 Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology

1982 Philosophy: Who Needs It


References



1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayn_Rand

2. http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh/File:Sign_Ayn_Rand.png

3. http://www.google.com.hk/images?hl=zh-CN&source=hp&q=ayn+rand&btnG=Google+%E6%90%9C%E7%B4%A2&oq=ayn+rand&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=1640l3500l0l4640l8l7l0l0l0l0l0l0ll0l0&oi=image_result_group&sa=X